How to compile and install Eucalyptus 3.2.0 on Ubuntu 12.04/12.10 from Github sources (cloud-in-a-box)


Recently, I’ve been spending my time up in the clouds (i.e. sunt cu capul in nori) messing around with Eucalyptus. Eucalyptus is an open-source cloud platform. In my experience, this means that you can download it from GitHub, compile it and then torture yourself trying to get it to run :) Here, I am presenting a short guide on building, installing and configuring Eucalyptus 3.2.0. To maximize pain, feel free to ignore everything I say below.


You need…

  • A Linux-capable machine with virtualization extensions
  • Space on your disk to install Ubuntu 12.04
  • More than 30GB of free space in /var/lib/eucalyptus. I had one 67GB root partition with 45GB free. Please note that not having sufficient free space on the Node Controller (NC) machine will prevent you from launching instances with a nasty "Not enough resources (0 in default 1): vm instances" message.


  • These are instructions for a cloud-in-a-box installation (Cloud, Cluster and Node Controller will be installed on one machine)
  • These are instructions for Ubuntu 12.04. Other Linux systems will need different prerequisites most likely, however the Eucalyptus-specific actions should (mostly) remain the same.
  • I am reproducing my steps on Ubuntu 12.04 as I remember them. Some things may be forgotten :(
  • This should (in theory) work on Ubuntu 12.10 as well. The compilation might pose some problems if you have Java 7 installed. By getting rid of any trace of OpenJDK 7, and replacing it with OpenJDK 6, I was able to also compile, install and run on 12.10, but I could never launch an instance due to lack of hard-disk space at the time.

Step 0: Install Ubuntu 12.04

Download Ubuntu 12.04 x86_64 Desktop Edition: Install Ubuntu 12.04 x86_64 Desktop Edition. Boot into your new Ubuntu installation, and set yourself as a password-less sudoer, to save some time:


sudo touch $file
sudo chmod 0440 $file
sudo sh -c "printf \"%s\\tALL=(ALL)\\tNOPASSWD: ALL\\n\" $me >$file"
sudo chmod 0440 $file

Update your system and reboot.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
sudo reboot now

Step 1: Install build prerequisites

NOTE: I am not sure if Ubuntu 12.0.2 comes with OpenJDK 7, but if you get compilation errors later on, this could be the issue and you might need to remove OpenJDK 7 and install OpenJDK 6. These are not all necessary, still, I am blindly following what I did.

sudo apt-get -y install vim subversion git libxss1 \

These are (probably) all necessary.

sudo apt-get -y install git bzr gcc make \
  apache2-threaded-dev ant openjdk-6-jdk \
  libvirt-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev 
  cdbs debhelper libaxis2c-dev \
  libvirt-dev libfuse-dev libfuse2 libcurl4-openssl-dev \
  libssl-dev ant-optional zlib1g-dev pkg-config swig python \
  python-setuptools rsync wget open-iscsi libxslt1-dev gengetopt \
  librampart-dev ant postgresql-server-dev-9.1

Install Axis2-1.4, this is used in Eucalyptus for SOAP/WSDL, etc.

sudo unzip -d /opt

Step 2: Download Eucalyptus 3.2.0 from GitHub

To save you some trouble:


Step 3: Build Eucalyptus 3.2.0

Extract and build:

export JAVA_HOME="/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk-amd64"
export JAVA="$JAVA_HOME/jre/bin/java"
export EUCALYPTUS="/"


cd eucalyptus-3.2.0/

# if you are reconfiguring, then do a 'make distclean' first
./configure --with-axis2c=/usr/lib/axis2 \ 
  --prefix=$EUCALYPTUS \
  --with-axis2c-services=/usr/lib/axis2/services \
  --with-apache2-module-dir=/usr/lib/apache2/modules \

# if you are rebuilding, then do a 'make clean' first
cd -

Step 4: Install runtime prerequisites

A lot of them…

sudo apt-get -y install dhcp3-server \ 
   vblade apache2 unzip curl vlan \
   bridge-utils python-libvirt libvirt-bin kvm vtun

sudo apt-get -y install adduser apache2 apache2-mpm-worker \
  bridge-utils dhcp3-server drbd8-utils euca2ools file \
  iptables libapache2-mod-axis2c libaxis2c0 libc6 \
  libcrypt-openssl-random-perl libcrypt-openssl-rsa-perl \
  libcrypt-x509-perl libcurl3 libdevmapper libpam-modules \
  librampart0 libssl1.0.0 libvirt0 libvirt-bin libxml2 \
  libxslt1.1 lvm2 open-iscsi openssh-client openssh-server \
  parted postgresql-client-9.1 python python2.7 python-boto \
  python-psutil python-pygresql rsync sudo tgt vblade vlan vtun \
  postgresql openntpd libsys-virt-perl libxml-simple-perl \

Seems like you also need libwsdl2c, which you can get:

sudo dpkg -i libwsdl2c-java_0.1-1_all.deb

Thanks to Andy Grimm for clarifying that this is not needed, if Axis2-1.4 is used!

Step 5: Setup a network bridge

Since we are doing a cloud-in-a-box installation, Eucalyptus needs a bridge (virtual switch if you’d like) to connect its components so that they can talk to each other. Eucalyptus has various network modes, which you can learn about here: Right now, we will set Eucalyptus up in the MANAGED-NOVLAN mode.

# Backup your current network configuration
sudo cp /etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces.orig

# Write a new configuration in a temporary "interfaces" file
echo "auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto br0
iface br0 inet static
bridge_ports none
bridge_stp off" >interfaces

# Overwrite your /etc/network/interfaces file
sudo cp interfaces /etc/network

# Bring up the bridge interface
# (this could take a few seconds)
sudo ifup br0

Note: I am assuming you don’t have a custom /etc/network/interfaces file here. If you do, just add the br0 section to your modified /etc/network/interfaces file, instead of overwriting as I do above.

Step 6: Install Eucalyptus 3.2.0

But first, some pre-installation setup:

# Create the 'eucalyptus' user
sudo addgroup eucalyptus
sudo adduser eucalyptus --ingroup eucalyptus
sudo usermod -d /var/lib/eucalyptus/ eucalyptus

# Add your user and eucalyptus to libvirtd group...
sudo adduser `id -un` libvirtd
sudo adduser eucalyptus libvirtd

# Add your user to kvm group...
sudo adduser `id -un` kvm
sudo adduser eucalyptus kvm

Now, install:

export JAVA_HOME="/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk-amd64"
export JAVA="$JAVA_HOME/jre/bin/java"
export EUCALYPTUS="/"

cd eucalyptus-3.2.0/
sudo make install
cd -

Now, download my Eucalyptus config file from here, and copy it in /etc/eucalyptus:

# Download my eucalyptus configuration to "eucalyptus.conf"

# Backup the default eucalyptus.conf file...
cd /etc/eucalyptus
sudo cp eucalyptus.conf eucalyptus.conf.orig
cd -

# Overwrite the default configuration with mine
sudo cp eucalyptus.conf /etc/eucalyptus/eucalyptus.conf

Then, some post-installation steps:

# Create the /var/lock/subsys directory
sudo mkdir -p /var/lock/subsys
sudo chown eucalyptus:eucalyptus /var/lock/subsys

# Copy Eucalyptus faults XML
mkdir -p /etc/eucalyptus/faults/en_US
cd eucalyptus-3.2.0
sudo cp util/faults/en_US/common.xml /etc/eucalyptus/faults/en_US/
cd -

# Change Eucalytus directory ownership
sudo chown -R eucalyptus:eucalyptus /etc/eucalyptus 
sudo chown -R eucalyptus:eucalyptus /var/lib/eucalyptus/
sudo chown -R eucalyptus:eucalyptus /var/log/eucalyptus
sudo chmod +s /usr/lib/eucalyptus/euca_rootwrap

Step 7: Initialize your cloud-in-a-box

WARNING: This is where you HAVE to disable your wireless or wired internet connection. If you want to be completely safe, turn off networking in Ubuntu’s network manager (Right click on Network Manager icon, click on “Enable Networking”). If you don’t, Eucalyptus will bind to the wrong interface (like wlan0) instead of br0 and you will have trouble in the next steps. Initialize your Eucalyptus cloud:

# WARNING: Disable your internet connections and all other
# non-necessary network interfaces
# Ideally, just lo and br0 should be up and running

# Eucalyptus needs to start a DNS server, so kill dnsmasq
sudo killall dnsmasq

# Create some directories
sudo mkdir -p /var/lock/subsys
sudo mkdir -p /var/run/eucalyptus
sudo chown -R eucalyptus:eucalyptus /var/lock/subsys
sudo chown -R eucalyptus:eucalyptus /var/run/eucalyptus

# Sets up ownership and permissions
sudo /usr/sbin/euca_conf --setup
# Sets up the cloud postgresql DB
sudo /usr/sbin/euca_conf --initialize

# For convenience, make the logs accessible to everyone
sudo chmod -R a+rw /var/log/eucalyptus/

Step 8: Start the your cloud’s components

Start the components in this order:

sudo service eucalyptus-cloud start
sudo service eucalyptus-cc cleanstart
sudo service eucalyptus-nc start

# Tail the Cloud Controller (CLC) logs
tail -f /var/log/eucalyptus/cloud-output.log

Your CLC is now starting up, this will take 1-2 minutes. Just look at the cloud-output.log file with the tail -f command above and, at some point, everything will be done and no new messages will appear. The last messages in cloud-output.log look like this for me.

                          |   component -- ENABLED
                          | -----------------_________________________________________________________
                          | -----------------|  Detected Interfaces                                  |
                          | -----------------|#######################################################|
                          |   br0 -- [/ [/]]
                          |   br0 -- /
                          |   lo -- [/ [null]]
                          |   lo -- /
2013-03-13 20:15:11  INFO | Updated local host information:   Host #13 / coordinator= booted db:synched(synced) dbpool:ok started=1363220051525 [/]
2013-03-13 20:15:11  INFO | Updated changed local host entry: Host #11 / coordinator= booted db:synched(synced) dbpool:ok started=1363220051525 [/]

Step 9: Register you cloud components

Now, you can register your cloud components: Walrus (Amazon S3 alternative), Storage Controller (provides Amazon-like EBS volumes), Cluster Controller and Node Controller. Again, all the cloud components will run on your local machine. If you want to build an actual Eucalyptus cloud, distributed on many machines, then more pain will be required and this article does not address any ways of alleviating it :) I can tell you that, if you try it, make sure you have the Storage Controller and Cluster Controller running on the same machine. I was not able to separate the two. (On the other hand, maybe you can figure it out.)

Some pre-registration prep-work first:

# First, reset your root password
sudo passwd

# Second, generate an SSH key for the root account

if sudo su -c "test ! -f /root/.ssh/id_rsa"; then
    sudo su -c 'ssh-keygen -f /root/.ssh/id_rsa -t rsa -N ""'
sudo su -c "ssh-copy-id root@$addr"

Register your components:

sudo /usr/sbin/euca_conf --register-walrus --partition walrus \
  --host --component walrus-

sudo /usr/sbin/euca_conf --register-cluster --partition cluster01 \
  --host --component cc-

sudo /usr/sbin/euca_conf --register-sc --partition cluster01 \
  --host --component sc-

sudo /usr/sbin/euca_conf --register-nodes ""

Now, list the components:

sudo euca_conf --list-clouds
sudo euca_conf --list-clusters
sudo euca_conf --list-nodes
sudo euca_conf --list-walrus
sudo euca_conf --list-sc

The output should be similar to this:

warning: No credentials found; attempting local authentication
CLOUDS  eucalyptus  ENABLED {}
warning: No credentials found; attempting local authentication
CLUSTER cluster01       cc-                  ENABLED{}
warning: No credentials found; attempting local authentication
NODE  cc-
warning: No credentials found; attempting local authentication
WALRUS  walrus          walrus-                  ENABLED{}
warning: No credentials found; attempting local authentication
STORAGECONTROLLER cluster01       sc-                  BROKEN  {}

Notice that the Storage Controller is BROKEN! Oh no, let’s fix that soon. NOTE: You can now re-enable your internet connection.

Step 10: Get your Eucalptus admin credentials

In order to administer the cloud using the euca2ools commands, which we installed in the requirements phase, you need to first fetch your credentials from Eucalyptus and then put them in your shell’s environment using the “source” command.

userid=`id -u`
groupid=`id -g`

# Fetch the credentials
sudo /usr/sbin/euca_conf --debug --get-credentials
sudo chown $userid:$userid

# Store your Eucalyptus credentials in your shell's environment.
mkdir -p credentials
unzip -d credentials

. credentials/eucarc

Ensure that your credentials work by running a command from the same terminal you ran the . credentials/eucarc command in.

euca-describe-services -E

WARNING: If you close the terminal in which you executed the . credentials/eucarc command, then you need to re-execute it in another terminal in order to be able to use the euca2ools commands to manage the cloud from that new terminal.

Step 11: Fix the Storage Controller in your cloud

The Storage Controller manages EBS volumes for your cloud instances and needs to be told what mode to operate in (DAS or Overlay). Also, you need to adjust the name of the tgt service in Ubuntu since Eucalyptus expects it to be tgtd. Fix Eucalyptus tgt issue:

sudo service tgt stop
sudo mv /etc/init/tgt.conf /etc/init/tgtd.conf
sudo mv /etc/init.d/tgt /etc/init.d/tgtd
sudo service tgtd start

Set the SC to ‘overlay’ mode:

sc=`euca-describe-properties | grep blockstoragemanager | cut -f 2`
euca-modify-property -p $sc=overlay

List the components. It should take less than a minute for the SC to be in the ENABLED state (you will see it as DISABLED for a while).

sudo euca_conf --list-sc

Now, once the SC is enabled, check the cloud’s availability to see how many instances you can start:

euca-describe-availability-zones verbose

You should see a line like this (depending on your euca2ools version), which would mean you can launch two m1.small instances (1 VCPU, 512MB of RAM, 5GB of ephemeral storage):

AVAILABILITYZONE       |- m1.small 0002 / 0002   1    512     5

Step 12: Install an OS image in Eucalyptus

Now, we need an OS image that we can boot a VM with, and the easiest way of installing an image is to use the euare-* commands. First, we have to install a newer euca2ools version from Github:


unzip -d .

cd euca2ools-2.1.3/
python build
su -c 'python install'
cd -

Then we can install a Debian cloud image (downloading the image will take a few minutes):

eustore-install-image -b debianbucket -t euca-debian-2011.07.02-x86_64.tgz -k kvm -s "debian" -a x86_64

Now, list the images, and ensure the Debian image is there:


The euca-describe-images output should be similar to this:

IMAGE  eki-5B193CB9  debianbucket/vmlinuz-2.6.28-11-generic.manifest.xml 434350321633  available private   x86_64  kernel      instance-store
IMAGE emi-A8AD36BC  debianbucket/euca-debian-2011.07.02-x86_64.manifest.xml 434350321633  available private   x86_64  machine eki-5B193CB9  eri-F0CD3713    instance-store
IMAGE eri-F0CD3713  debianbucket/initrd.img-2.6.28-11-generic.manifest.xml  434350321633  available private   x86_64  ramdisk   instance-store

We will use the EMI-xxxxxxxx number to boot a Debian instance later.

Step 13: Run your VM (Zboara puiule… Zboara!)

First, generate a SSH key that Eucalyptus can inject in the VM so you can use that same key to login into the VM later.

# Generate SSH key (mykey)
ssh-keygen -f mykey -t rsa -N ""

# Add SSH key to Eucalyptus using euca-add-keypair
euca-add-keypair mykey >mykey.private
chmod 0600 mykey.private

Second, run the VM:

# Start KVM for Intel
sudo modprobe kvm_intel
# Or start KVM for AMD
sudo modprobe kvm_amd

# Get the first EMI in the list of images (you only have one at this point)
emi=`euca-describe-images | grep IMAGE | grep emi-........ -o | head -n 1`

# Run an instance
euca-run-instances -k mykey -t m1.small $emi

Look at logs and/or at the VM’s console output:

# Use -f if you'd like and Ctrl-C to exit
tail /var/log/eucalyptus/nc.log

# Check out console output from VM
inst=`euca-describe-instances | grep running | head -n 1 | cut -f 2`
euca-get-console-output $inst

Third, login and have fun:

# Get the instance's IP
inst=`euca-describe-instances | grep running | cut -f 4`

# Remove a previous host key (if any) at that address
ssh-keygen -R $inst &>/dev/null

# SSH into the instance
ssh -i mykey.private root@$inst

Step 14: Attach an EBS volume to your Eucalyptus instance

It took me a while to figure out that you need to set the USE_VIRTIO_DISK flag to 1 in eucalyptus.conf, for volumes to work in KVM, but you already have this set in your eucalyptus.conf, if you overwrote it with mine. Create a 5GB volume:

euca-create-volume --zone cluster01 -s 5

Attach it to the instance:

inst=`euca-describe-instances | grep running | head -n 1 | cut -f 2`
vol=`euca-describe-volumes | grep available | head -n 1 | cut -f 2`

euca-attach-volume -i $inst -d vda $vol

Check whether it’s attached:

# login into the instance, as instructed above.

# inside the instance

# look for messages related to the new 'vda' block device
cat /var/log/kern.log | grep vda

Play with the volume:

# inside the instance

mkfs.ext2 /dev/vda
mkdir /stuff
mount /dev/vda /stuff
echo "foobar" >/stuff/hello
umount /stuff

Detach and reattach and make sure stuff is still there:

# inside the instance

# If you haven't, unmount the volume
umount /stuff

# outside the instance
vol=`euca-describe-volumes | grep in-use | head -n 1 | cut -f 2`

euca-detach-volume $vol

# Wait for a second for the volume to attach

# Reattach the volume
inst=`euca-describe-instances | grep running | head -n 1 | cut -f 2`
vol=`euca-describe-volumes | grep available | head -n 1 | cut -f 2`

euca-attach-volume -i $inst -d vda $vol

# Now mount the volume back, and check that 
# the 'hello' file is still there

Finally, just detach the volume or stop the instance.

vol=`euca-describe-volumes | grep in-use | head -n 1 | cut -f 2`
euca-detach-volume $vol

inst=`euca-describe-instances | grep running | cut -f 2`
euca-stop-instances $inst
euca-terminate-instances $inst

Question: Why isn’t the internet working in my instance?

I think this has to do with the fact I setup Eucalyptus to bind to the br0 bridge, which is not connected to the Internet. I will write an appendix on how to fix this soon. I suspect there should be a way to bind Eucalyptus to wlan0 or eth0 in MANAGED-NOVLAN mode.

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